Thanks, and good job mate!
Indeed, you cannot connect from deluge-console to classic(default/non-thinclient-mode) deluge, and need start deluged, which cannot run simultaniously with classic GTK-UI's "internally started deluged copy" used by the GTK client behind it's scenes, well unless adding -c with other profile dir than used already by GTK-UI's internal deluged-copy(non-thinclient mode) and other daemon listen port I presume since all under localhost. However, you could make this seamless by using thinclient-mode in GTK-UI, and in connection-manager there, selecting auto-connect to daemon, or alike called. You could also select the two underneath options if wanted, so if not already running, then auto-starting deluged for you and connecting, which shows the connection-manager for a few secs while loading, so the last option underneath hides that, but not really important but might as well.
However, if using systemd or whatever service-management to start deluged(so not running 'deluged' manually in terminal yourself everytime using it), then as I see from your command-line posted, that you're after using same profile as own user, then would need change so that is run always when started(append -c xxxx), or e.g. alternatively change the defined user deluged setup to start under, debian-deluged in repo package, to instead own user in that service-management-system(service file or user.conf) if wanting that, which isn't as secure though, but easier to work with generally, which in that case doesn't need use the -c option as always will use default profile dir for said user deluged is running under(e.g. check in htop/ps or whatever to verify), so by default the config dir would be ~/.config/deluge if deluged is running under your user, so don't need specify in that case, only needed if run e.g. from a service like mentioned before, since not runs as own user normally.
This further is confused by the fact that ubuntu adds some stupid extra layer for the package between old sysv init and newer systemd, which is why if wanna use a service to start/stop deluge, e.g. at boot, then I posted instructions previously to get that layer away and continue with straight systemd service files added yourself from official documentation, as e.g. changing away to other user or make other mods was hard to do in default setup when that layer interferred, atleast for me when previously testing it for other users here. This is the instructions, though use debian-deluged, so if wanna use default user, then change user and group in the files after wget'ing them, to own user and primary group, well the group lines can be removed from both as users primary group used by default, but doesn't hurt either adding, or, if wanna add that -c you did to change the profile dir, though not needed as said if changing the user as already used then. viewtopic.php?f=7&t=55906&start=10#p233180
(stop all deluge UIs and daemons before following instructions, if ever wanting try that, though you probably don't need and just posted just in case - if not using services or if not having issues with them, then no need)
Good link you posted before about thinclient, which I obviously should have posted initially to you