Unfortunetly it doesn't.
Granted it's a NSIS installer like qbittorrent, meaning you can easilly extract it with 7-zip and run it from wherever, though however still reads/saves from/to %appdata%\deluge, as no native portable mode inplemented, in contrary to your qbittorrent example.
It can be easilly hacked into the code though, e.g. hackily by rewriting %appdata% location to current-folder if lazy(just for deluge, nothing else of-course) - but in the new official installers which are freezed with pyinstaller, then cannot really do that, and so need rebuild and freeze deluge additionally unfortunetly, which need added to such guide also then.
Maybe I could do that one of these days, I mean a portabkle zip, but no promises...
Edit: Actuallty I didn't think about you can actually workaround it by after having extracked installer with 7-zip, then just start deluge by pressing the address-field at top of the folder(ctrl+l) and enter e.g. 'deluge -c profile' and it will save/read from %cd%\profile each time - can also make a batch-file with that line and keep in that folder to just double-click to start deluge. No need for me to rebuild deluge then imho.
Edit2: Just to end, make a deluge.cmd file into extracted deluge folder with e.g.
The first line hides the cmd-prompt window after a second or so, and can be gotten from a google search(download/extract and place cmdow.exe into deluge extracted folder).